The Researchers

John Judge was born in Washington, DC, part of the post WWII baby boom. He grew up in the shadow of the Pentagon, the CIA, and the NSA. His parents were career civilian employees of the Pentagon; his mother was the highest paid woman employee for many years, and was five levels above top security.

An outspoken critic and opponent of the Vietnam war and militarization of society, he is also an independent researcher, author and lecturer who has spoken at college campuses and community events, and appeared on hundreds of local and national radio and television talk shows.


Author of Judge for Yourself, a compendium of his research articles and lectures about covert operations, hidden history and assassinations, he co-founded the Committee for an Open Archives in 1989 to free the JFK and MLK assassination files. That organization joined with others to form the national Coalition on Political Assassinations in Washington, DC, following appointment of the JFK Assassination Records Review Board in 1994.

Judge served as the Executive Director of COPA until 1998, and promoted the release of 4 1/2 million pages of records on the JFK assassination, the largest release of classified documents to date. He continues working for a full release of the MLK records.

His research unearthed startling information concerning Jonestown, programmed asssassins, post-war international fascism, Watergate and Contragate, the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan, organized political crimes, and so-called “UFO’s”. His independent research and analysis have drawn the attention of major media, including Newsweek, the Los Angeles Times, MSNBC, and the John McLaughlin News Hour.

John Judge currently resides in Washington, DC.   Original Bio


James DiEugenio

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James DiEugenio first became interested in history while at film school. Later he studied Contemporary American History from California State University, Northridge.

His first book, Destiny Betrayed (1992) took a close look at the Jim Garrison investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In 1993, he became a co-founder of Citizens for Truth about the Kennedy Assassination. The following year he was co-founder of the Coalition on Political Assassinations (COPA).

DiEugenio and Lisa Pease co-edited COPA’s journal, Probe Magazine (1993-2000). DiEugenio is also the co-editor of The Assassinations (2002), a book that covers the deaths of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Robert Kennedy, and Malcolm X.

bio from Spartacus Educational


Jim Garrison

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James Garrison was born in Knoxville, Iowa, on 20th November, 1921. His family moved to Chicago and after Pearl Harbor Garrison joined the U.S. Army. In 1942 he took part in the fighting in Europe.

After the war Garrison attended Tulare Law School in New Orleans. He then joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and served as a special agent in Seattle and Tacoma. In 1954 Garrison returned to New Orleans where he became assistant district attorney.

In 1961, Garrison was elected as the city’s district attorney. He developed a good reputation and in his first two years he never lost a case. According to Joan Mellen, the author of A Farewell to Justice (2005): “He hired the first woman assistant attorney in New Orleans history, Louise Korns, who had been first in her class at Tulane, and entrusted most of the research to her… Garrison’s was the first office to employ full-time police investigators, among them Louis Ivon… Garrison dressed nattily in three-piece suits and he was not corrupt, rejecting the Napoleonic premise that political office was a form of private property.”

Three days after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Garrison brought in David Ferrie for questioning. He had been informed by Jack Martin, a part-time private investigator, that Ferrie had known Lee Harvey Oswald and might have been involved in the assassination. Ferrie told Garrison that on the day of the assassination he had driven to Houston in order to go ice-skating. Garrison thought he was lying and handed him over to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. However, after a brief interview he was released. 

In 1965 Garrison was told by Hale Bloggs, a Congressman from Louisiana and a former member of the Warren Commission, that he had serious doubts that Oswald was a lone-gunman. This encouraged Garrison to read the Warren Report and books on the assassination by Mark Lane, Edward Jay Epstein and Harold Weisberg.

Garrison recruited Tom Bethell to investigate the case. He interviewed Vince Salandria who claimed that the conspirators were the CIA and military leaders who wanted to stop President Kennedy’s effort to end the Cold War. He also contacted Sylvia Meagher and Mary Ferrell.

In November 1966 Garrison told a journalist, David Chandler, that he had important information on the case. Chandler told Richard Billings and in January 1967, the Life Magazine reporter arranged a meeting with Garrison. Billings told Garrison that the top management at Life had concluded that Kennedy’s assassination had been a conspiracy and that “his investigation was moving in the right direction”. Billings suggested that he worked closely with Garrison. According to Garrison “The magazine would be able to provide me with technical assistance, and we could develop a mutual exchange of information”.

Garrison agreed to this deal and Richard Billings was introduced to staff member, Tom Bethell. In his diary Bethal reported: “In general, I feel that Billings and I share a similar position about the Warren Report. He does not believe that there was a conspiracy on the part of the government, the Warren Commission or the FBI to conceal the truth, but that a probability exists that they simply did not uncover the whole truth.”

Garrison also recruited Bernardo de Torres, who had good connections with anti-Castro figures. William Turner, the author of Rearview Mirror: Looking Back at the FBI, the CIA and Other Tails (2001) has argued: “A veteran of the Bay of Pigs, De Torres showed up on Garrison’s doorstep early in the probe, saying he was a private detective from Miami who wanted to help, and dropping the name of Miami DA Richard Gerstein, a friend of Garrison’s, as an opener. In retrospect, Garrison remembered that every lead De Torres developed ended up in a box canyon.” One of the jobs Garrison gave him was to find Eladio del Valle.

Garrison became suspicious of his motives and on 7th January, 1967, he ordered his staff “under no circumstances” to offer any information to De Torres. Four days later he wrote at the top of one of De Torres’ memos: “His reliability is not established.” Garrison was right to be suspicious as he later discovered he was working for the CIA. According to Gaeton Fonzi, de Torres’s CIA handler was Paul Bethel. Another researcher, Larry Hancock, has argued that “It certainly appears that De Torres’ role in the Garrison investigation is suspicious, and it supports Otero’s remarks to HSCA investigators that De Torres had ‘penetrated’ Garrison’s investigation. It also shows that De Torres had an agenda of his own in addition to getting intelligence about Garrison’s investigation and investigators. That agenda involved once again shifting attention to Fidel Castro and a Cuban hit team rather than the activities of the Cuban exiles.”

Garrison eventually became convinced that a group of right-wing activists, including Guy Banister, David Ferrie, Carlos Bringuier, Eladio del Valle and Clay Shaw were involved in a conspiracy with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to kill John F. Kennedy. Garrison claimed this was in retaliation for his attempts to obtain a peace settlement in both Cuba and Vietnam.

On 17th February, 1967, The New Orleans States-Item reported that Garrison was investigating the assassination of Kennedy. It also said that one of the suspects was David Ferrie. Five days later Ferrie’s body was found in his New Orleans apartment. Although two suicide notes were found, the coroner did not immediately classify the death as a suicide, noting there were indications Ferrie may have suffered a brain hemorrhage.

Garrison immediately announced that Ferrie had been a part of the Kennedy conspiracy. “The apparent suicide of David Ferrie ends the life of a man who in my judgment was one of history’s most important individuals. Evidence developed by our office had long since confirmed that he was involved in events culminating in the assassination of President Kennedy… We have not mentioned his name publicly up to this point. The unique nature of this case now leaves me no other course of action.” Garrison added that he was making preparations to arrest Ferrie when they heard of his death. “Apparently, we waited too long.”

Another suspect, Eladio del Valle, was found dead in a Miami parking lot twelve hours after Ferrie’s was discovered in New Orleans. Police reported that de Valle had been tortured, shot in the heart at point-blank range, and his skull split open with an axe. His murder has never been solved. Diego Gonzales Tendera, a close friend, later claimed de Valle was murdered because of his involvement in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A senior member of the Cuban Secret Service, Fabian Escalante, agreed: “In 1962 Eladio Del Valle tried to infiltrate Cuba with a commando group of 22 men but their boat had an English key – a little island. In the middle of 1962. Of course, we knew this. I tell you about this, because one of our agents who was one of the people helping to bring this group to Cuba, was a man of very little education. They talked English on many occasions on this little island with Eladio Del Valle told this person, on many occasions, that Kennedy must be killed to solve the Cuban problem. After that we had another piece of information on Eladio Del Valle. This was offered to us by Tony Cuesta. He told us that Eladio Del Valle was one of the people involved in the assassination plot against Kennedy.”

A week after the death of David Ferrie Garrison announced the arrest of Clay Shaw. He was 54 years old and a retired businessman. John J. McCloy, a former member of the Warren Commission, was asked by a journalist what he thought about the Garrison investigation. He replied that the Warren Commission had always known that new evidence in the case might turn up. “We did not say that Oswald acted alone. We said we could find no credible evidence that he acted with anyone else.”

Ramsay Clark, the new Attorney General stated that the FBI had already investigated and cleared Shaw “in November and December of 1963″ of “any part in the assassination”. As Garrison pointed out: “However, the statement that Shaw, whose name appears nowhere in the 26 volumes of the Warren Commission, had been investigated by the federal government was intriguing. If Shaw had no connection to the assassination, I wondered, why had he been investigated?” Within a few days of this statement Clark had to admit that he had published inaccurate information and that no investigation of Shaw had taken place.

As part of Garrison’s attempt to prove the existence of a conspiracy, he subpoenaed the Zapruder Film from Time-Life Corporation. The company refused and they fought this subpoena all the way to the Supreme Court, which finally ruled that the corporation had to hand over the film. As Jim Marrs has pointed out: “Time-Life grudgingly turned over to Garrison a somewhat blurry copy of the film – but that was enough. Soon, thanks to the copying efforts of Garrison’s staff, bootleg Zapruder films were in the hands of several assassination researchers.”

In May, 1967 Hugh Aynesworth published a critical article of Garrison in Newsweek: “Garrison’s tactics have been even more questionable than his case. I have evidence that one of the strapping D.A.’s investigators offered an unwilling “witness” $3,000 and a job with an airline – if only he would “fill in the facts” of the alleged meeting to plot the death of the President. I also know that when the D.A.’s office learned that this entire bribery attempt had been tape-recorded, two of Garrison’s men returned to the “witness” and, he says, threatened him with physical harm.”

Garrison later responded to Aynesworth’s claims: “As for the $3,000 bribe, by the time I came across Aynesworth’s revelation, the witness our office had supposedly offered it to, Alvin Babeouf, had admitted to us that it never happened. Aynesworth, of course, never explained what he did with the “evidence” allegedly in his possession. And the so-called bribery tape recording had not, in fact, ever existed.”

In September, 1967, Richard Billings told Garrison that Life Magazine was no longer willing to work with him in the investigation. Billings claimed that this was because he had come to the conclusion that he had links to organized crime. Soon afterwards, Life began a smear campaign against Garrison. It was reported that Garrison had been given money by an unnamed “New Orleans mobster”.

In Shaw’s trial Perry Russo claimed that in September, 1963, he overheard Clay Shaw and David Ferrie discussing the proposed assassination of John F. Kennedy. It was suggested that the crime could be blamed on Fidel Castro. Russo’s testimony was discredited by the revelation that he underwent hypnosis and had been administered sodium pentathol, or “truth serum,” at the request of the prosecution. It claimed that Russo only came up with a link between Shaw, Ferrie and Oswald after these treatments. Shaw was eventually found not guilty of conspiring to assassinate Kennedy.

In 1973 Garrison lost the office to Harry Connick. After leaving his post as district attorney Garrison wrote a book about his investigations of the Kennedy assassination, On the Trail of the Assassins (1988). Carl Oglesby summarized Garrison’s theory as follows:

(a) Rabidly anti-Communist elements of the C.I.A.’s operations division, often moving through extra-governmental channels, were deeply involved at the top of the assassination planning and management process and appear to have been the makers of the decision to kill the President.

(b) The conspiracy was politically motivated. Its purpose was to stop J.F.K.’s movement toward détente in the Cold War, and it succeeded in doing that. It must therefore be regarded as a palace coup d’etat.

(c) Oswald was an innocent man craftily set up to take the blame. As he put it, “I’m a patsy.”

Several researchers were highly critical of the methods that Garrison used in his investigation. Sylvia Meagher wrote: “As the Garrison investigation continued to unfold, I had increasingly serious misgivings about the validity of his evidence, and the scrupulousness of his methods.” Anthony Summers was surprised that Oliver Stone decided to base his film JFK on Garrison’s work: “From a vast array of scholarship, he picked a book by Jim Garrison, former District Attorney of New Orleans, as his main source work. Garrison, many will recall, is a strange figure – considered crazy by some, and crooked by others.”

Jim Garrison died on 21st October, 1992.   Original Bio

Lisa Pease

Lisa Pease, a lifelong information activist, became a researcher while trying to win arguments on the Internet about the assassination of John F. Kennedy. She found that her arguments were more persuasive when she backed them up with cold, hard data. Before she knew it, she had accumulated a massive library of books (including a full 26-volume set of Warren Commission Report), recordings, clippings and documents on these cases. When she discovered that the Los Angeles Police Department’s records of the Robert Kennedy assassination were available at her local library, she spent many lunch hours, nights and weekends pouring through the files on microfilm to research that bizarre case.

Lisa Pease co-editor and publisher of Probe Magazine (1995-2000). Lisa has been a featured speaker at several seminars in Dallas and Los Angeles. Lisa Pease is also the co-editor with James DiEugenio of The Assassinations (2003) that covers the deaths of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Robert Kennedy, and Malcolm X. She is also the chief archivist of the Real History Archives website.

original bio at Spartacus Educational

Cyril Wecht

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Cyril Harrison Wecht was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 20th March, 1931. His father, Nathan Wecht, was a Lithuanian born grocery storekeeper and his mother came the Ukraine.

Wecht received degrees from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (1956) and the University of Maryland School of Law (1962). After serving in the United States Air Force, he became a forensic pathologist. He served on the staff of St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh before becoming Deputy Coroner of Allegheny County in 1965. Four years later he was elected coroner.

Dr. Wecht established a private practice and has served as a medical-legal and forensic pathology consultant in both civil and criminal cases. This has included providing expert evidence into the deaths of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, Sharon Tate, Elvis Presley, JonBenét Ramsey, Herman Tarnower, Danielle van Dam, Sunny von Bülow, Vincent Foster, Laci Peterson and Anna Nicole Smith.

Wecht was one of the medical experts who testified before the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978. During his testimony Wecht argued against the idea that President John F. Kennedy was shot by one gunman from the Texas School Book Depository. It was partly as a result of Wecht’s testimony that the final report stated that “the committee believes, on the basis of the evidence available to it, that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.” 

In 1979, Dr. Wecht was accused of performing autopsies for other counties at the county morgue and depositing the fees from these autopsies in his private business’ bank account. The story ran in the newspaper the same day that Wecht announced his candidacy for county commissioner. This resulted in the claim that these allegations were politically motivated. In 1981, the six week long criminal trial began. After 10 hours of deliberation, the jury in the case acquitted Dr. Wecht of all charges.

Over the years Wecht performed over 14,000 autopsies and has supervised, reviewed or been consulted on approximately 30,000 additional post-mortem examinations. Other posts held by Wecht include clinical professor at the University of Pittsburgh schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine and Public Health and the professor at the Duquesne University schools of Law, Pharmacy and Health Sciences.

Wecht is the author of several books including Legal Medicine (1988) United States Medicolegal Autopsy Laws (1989), Cause of Death: The Final Diagnosis (1994), Grave Secrets (1996), Forensic Sciences (1997), Who Killed Jonbenet Ramsey? (1998), Mortal Evidence: The Forensics Behind Nine Shocking Cases (2003), Forensic Science and the Law: Investigation Evidence in Criminal and Civil Cases (2005), Tales from the Morgue (2005) and A Question of Murder: Compelling Cases from a Famed Forensic Pathologist (2008).

During his career Wecht has served as president of the American College of Legal Medicine and the American Academy of Forensic Science, as well as chairman of the boards of trustees of both the American Board of Legal Medicine and the American College of Legal Medicine Foundation. He is also is a fellow of both the College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.

On January 28, 2008, a new federal trial against Dr. Wecht began. Once again it was claimed that the prosecution of Dr. Wecht was politically motivated since he was a leading member of the Democratic Party in the Pittsburgh area. However, during the trial of Dr. Wecht, the judge barred the defense from raising the arguments that the case was politically motivated.

The prosecution’s case lasted for twenty four days. Upon the prosecution resting their case, the defense rested without calling a single witness to counter the prosecution’s case or witnesses presented. After eleven days of deliberation, the case ended with the jury informing the court for a second time that a decision could not be reached and the judge declaring a mistrial. The prosecution immediately informed the court they planned to retry Dr. Wecht.

Since the mistrial, jurors in the first case against Dr. Wecht have raised concern to reporters about FBI agents contacting them since the trial to schedule meetings with the US Attorney Mary Beth Buchanan. John Conyers Jr., who chairs the House Judiciary Committee, commented: “I am deeply troubled by reports of FBI agents contacting former jurors who failed to convict Dr. Wecht. Whether reckless or intended, it is simply common sense that such contacts can have a chilling effect on future juries in this and other cases. When added to the troubling conduct of this prosecution, there is the appearance of a win-at-all-costs mentality.”

On 14th May 2009, the new trial judge dismissed most of the evidence against Wecht because it was seized under illegal and improperly executed search warrant. On June 2 2009, U.S. Attorney Mary Beth Buchanan announced that her office would be filing a motion to dismiss all charges against Dr. Wecht.

original bio at Spartacus Educational

James W. Douglass

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James W. Douglass was a professor of religion at the University of Hawaii who as a pacifist became involved in the civil disobedience protest demonstrations against the Vietnam War. During this period he was the author of several books including The Non-Violent Cross: A Theology of Revolution and Peace (1968), and The Human Revolution: A Search for Wholeness (1969).

In 1975 he joined forces with his wife, Shelley Douglass to establish the Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action in an attempt to stop the construction of the Trident missile nuclear submarine base on the Kitsap Peninsula.

Jim and Shelley Douglass later moved to Birmingham, Alabama, to establish Mary’s House, a “house of hospitality” for homeless people in need of long-term health care.

Other books by Douglass include Lightning East to West: Jesus, Gandhi, and the Nuclear Age (1983), Dear Gandhi: Now What? Letters from Ground Zero (1988).

In 2003 Douglass joined a Christian Peacemaker Teams in Iraq and stayed with civilians during the U.S. led invasion of the country. In 2006 he published The Nonviolent Coming of God and Resistance and Contemplation.

Douglass next book, JFK and the Unspeakable (2008) was a study of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In the book he argues that after the experience of the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy decided to try and bring an end to the Cold War. This included opening-up secret back-channel dialogue with Nikita Khrushchev in 1963. According to Douglass, this action “caused members of his own U.S. military-intelligence establishment to regard him as a virtual traitor who had to be eliminated.”

Daniel Ellsberg argues that in JFK and the Unspeakable: “Douglass presents, brilliantly, an unfamiliar yet thoroughly convincing account of a series of creditable decisions of John F. Kennedy – at odds with his initial Cold war stance – that earned him the secret distrust and hatred of hard-liners among the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the CIA.”

Gaeton Fonzi, the chief investigator of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, has argued: “With penetrating insight and unswerving integrity, Douglass probes the fundamental truths about the JFK’s assassination. If, he contends, humanity permits those truths to slip into history ignored and undefined it does so at its own peril. By far the most important book yet written on the subject.”

Gerald McKnight argues that the book “is an exceptional achievement”, whereas Vincent Salandria has pointed out that “Jim Douglass’s spiritual and eloquent telling of President John F. Kennedy’s martyrdom for peace is a peerless and extraordinary historical contribution.” Peter Dale Scott has called the book “a remarkable achievement, outstanding even in an overcrowded field.”

Original Bio


Peter Dale Scott

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Peter Dale Scott was born in Montreal, Canada, on 11th January, 1929. He was educated at McGill University and University College, Oxford.

Peter Dale Scott taught at Sedbergh School and McGill University before joining the Canadian Department of External Affairs, (1957-1961) and the Canadian Embassy in Warsaw, Poland (1959-1961).

Returning to academic life Peter Dale Scott taught at the University of California for over thirty years. Books by Peter Dale Scott include The War Conspiracy: The Secret Road to the Second Indochina War (1972), Crime and Cover-Up: The CIA, the Mafia, and the Dallas-Watergate Connection (1977), Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (1993) and Deep Politics II: Essays on Oswald, Mexico, and Cuba (1996), Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America (1998), Drugs, Oil, and War: The United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina (2003), The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America (2008) and American War Machine: Deep Politics, the CIA Global Drug Connection, and the Road to Afghanistan (2010)

Peter Dale Scott believes that a group of Mafia bosses and corrupt union leaders, including Sam Giancana, Jimmy Hoffa, Carlos Marcello, Johnny Roselli, Santos Trafficante and Dave Yarras were involved in organizing the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Original Bio

Mark Lane

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Mark Lane joined the legal profession after the Second World War. A member of the Democratic Party, he helped establish the Reform Democratic Movement in 1959. A supporter of John F. Kennedy, he managed his presidential campaign in New York.

In 1960 Lane was elected to the New York Legislature. Over the next couple of years he campaigned to abolish capital punishment and worked closely with Mary Wagner in her attempt to deal with the city’s housing problem. Lane was also the only public official arrested as a Freedom Rider.

Mark Lane took a close interest in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He read a statement in the New York Times by Jean Hill who claimed that she and her friend, Mary Moorman, who was taking Polaroid pictures of the motorcade, were only a few feet away from Kennedy when he was shot. Hill thought the shots had come from behind the wooden fence at the top of the knoll. Lane contacted Hill who told him that as soon as the firing stopped she ran towards the wooden fence in an attempt to find the gunman. However, Hill and Moorman were detained by two secret service men. After searching the two women they confiscated the picture of the assassination.

Lane later recalled: “In the weeks following the assassination I analyzed the case, setting my analysis alongside what was then known about the case as I had done a hundred times before for clients I had represented. The difference was that there was no client… When I completed my analysis of the evidence and the charges, I had written a ten-thousand-word evaluation.” A copy of the article was sent to Earl Warren. In a letter sent with the article, Lane wrote: “It would be appropriate that Mr. Oswald, from whom every legal right was stripped, be accorded counsel who may participate with the single purpose of representing the rights of the accused.”

For the first three weeks the mainstream media consistently reported that Lee Harvey Oswald had been the lone gunman responsible for the death of Kennedy. However, James Aronson, the editor of the left-wing, National Guardian, had considerable doubts about this story. In the first edition of the newspaper after the assassination, he used the headline: “The Assassination Mystery: Kennedy and Oswald Killings Puzzle the Nation”.

Meanwhile, Mark Lane also tried to find a magazine to publish the article of the assassination. He approached Carey McWilliams: “The obvious choice, I thought, was the Nation. Its editor, Carey McWilliams, was an acquaintance. He had often asked me to write a piece for him… McWilliams seemed pleased to hear from me and delighted when I told him I had written something I wished to give to the Nation . When he learned of the subject matter, however, his manner approached panic.” McWilliams told Lane: “We cannot take it. We don’t want it. I am sorry but we have decided not to touch that subject.” Lane got the same response from the editors of Fact who said the subject matter was too controversial. It was also rejected by The Reporter, Look, Life and the Saturday Evening Post.

James Aronson said he “heard that a maverick New York lawyer named Mark Lane had done some careful leg and brain work to produce a thesis casting doubt on the lone-assassin theory – and even whether Oswald had actually been involved in the crime.” Aronson contacted Lane who told him that the article had been rejected by thirteen publications. Aronson offered to publish the article. Lane told him that “I would send it to him but I would not authorize him to publish it. He asked why. I said that I was seeking a broader, non-political publisher and that if the piece originated on the left, the subject would likely never receive the debate that it required.”

Lane now took the article James Wechsler, an editor of the New York Post. He also rejected it and said that Lane would never find a publisher and “urged him to forget about it”. Lane now told him about Aronson’s offer. Wechsler, according to Lane was “furious” when he heard this news. “Don’t let them publish it… They’ll turn it into a political issue.”

By this time the article had been turned down by seventeen publications and so Lane decided to let Aronson to publish the article in the National Guardian. The 10,000 word article, published on 19th December, 1963, was the longest story in its fifteen-year history. It was presented as a lawyer’s report to the Warren Commission and titled A Brief for Lee Harvey Oswald . Aronson argued in the introduction: “The Guardian’s publication of Lane’s brief presumes only one thing: a man’s innocence, under US. Law, unless or until proved guilty. It is the right of any accused. A presumption of innocence is the rock upon which American jurisprudence rests… We ask all our readers to study this document… Any information or analysis based on fact that can assist the Warren Commission is in the public interest – an interest which demands that everything possible be done to establish the facts in this case.”

Aronson later admitted: “Few issues of the Guardian created such a stir. Anticipating greater interest we had increased the press run by 5,000, but an article in the New York Times about our story brought a heavy demand at the newsstands and dealers were calling for additional copies. Before the month was out we had orders for 50,000 reprints.”

In January, 1964, Walter Winchell made a vicious attack on Mark Lane and the National Guardian in his regular newspaper column. He described the newspaper as “a virtual propaganda arm of the Soviet Union ” and called Lane an “agitator” seeking to abolish the Un-American Activities Committee.

Aronson offered the article to both the United Press International and the Associated Press but both agencies rejected it. However, the article was published in several European countries and was discussed in most leading newspapers throughout the world. Some newspapers attempted to rubbish the article by describing it as “left-wing propaganda”. Bertrand Russell wrote to The Times complaining about this treatment: “Mr. Lane is no more a left-winger than was President Kennedy. He attempted to publish his evidence… in virtually every established American publication but was unsuccessful. Only the National Guardian was prepared to print his scrupulously documented material… I think it important that no unnecessary prejudice against this valuable work of Mr. Lane should be aroused, so that his data concerning a vital event may be viewed with an open mind by people of all political persuasions.”

Mark Lane continued to carry out his research into the assassination. He later recalled: “Had I known at the outset, when I wrote that article for the National Guardian, that I was going to be so involved that I would close my law practice, abandon my work, abandon my political career, be attacked by the very newspapers in New York City which used to hail my election to the state legislature; had I known that – had I known that I was going to be placed in the lookout books, so that when I come back into the country, I’m stopped by the immigration authorities – only in America, but no other country in the world – that my phones would be tapped, that not only would the FBI follow me around at lecture engagements, but present to the Warren Commission extracts of what I said at various lectures – I am not sure, if I knew all that, that I ever would have written that article in the first place.”

However, Lane did continue and by February 1965 he had completed the first draft of Rush to Judgment. He sent it to several publishers and finally it was accepted by Holt, Rinehart and Winston and published on 13th August. This concerned the CIA who wrote in a secret report: “ Rush to Judgment had sold 85,000 copies by early November… The 1st January 1967, New York Times Book Review reported the book as at the top of the General category of the best seller list, having been in top position for seven weeks and on the list for 17 weeks.”   Original Bio


Gary L. Aguilar

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Gary L. Aguilar is an ophthalmologist specializing in plastic and reconstructive surgery, he is also Assistant Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at Stanford University and the University of California. He has lectured extensively on the assassination of John F. Kennedy and has a special interest in the medical evidence, on which he is a leading authority, including especially eyewitness reports from Parkland Memorial Hospital and Bethesda Medical Center.Dr. Aguilar is one of only a handful of non-government physicians ever allowed by the Kennedy family privileged access to JFK’s still-restricted medical and autopsy evidence that is housed at the National Archives.

Among his JFK writings are: How Five Investigations Into JFK’s Medical/Autopsy Evidence Got It Wrong (with Cathy Cunningham), Max Holland Rescues the Warren Commission and The Nation (Probe Magazine, September-October 2000), The Magic Bullet: Even More Magical Than We Knew? (with Josiah Thompson, author of Six Seconds in Dallas), The Converging Case for Conspiracy in the Death of JFK, published in: Murder in Dealey Plaza, edited by James Fetzer (2000) and JFK, Vietnam, and Oliver Stone (History Matters, 2005).

In November 2003, Dr. Aguilar publicly debated JFK’s medical/autopsy evidence with Dr. Michael Baden, former coroner of New York City and former head of the panel of forensic experts who examined JFK’s medical/autopsy evidence for the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978. The debate was held at a national symposium hosted by Cyril Wecht, MD, JD in Pittsburgh, PA and was attended by over 1300 people.

In 2004, Dr. Aguilar engaged Max Holland in a public debate in Washington on the subject, Was Jim Garrison Duped by the KGB?

Dr. Aguilar practices in San Francisco and lives nearby with his wife and three children.

Original bio at Spartacus Educational

Mae Brussel

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Mae Brussell, the daughter of prominent Rabbi Edgar Magnin and great-granddaughter of successful businessman, Isaac Magnin, was born in Los Angeles on 29th May 29, 1922.

The mother of five children, Brussell took a keen interest in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Like many people she was unconvinced that Kennedy had been killed by Lee Harvey Oswald.

In June, 1971, Brussell appeared as a guest on KLRB, a local FM radio station. Later she was given her own show Dialogue: Conspiracy (later renamed World Watchers International). The weekly programme lasted for seventeen years.

Brussell published several articles on conspiracies including Why Was Martha Mitchell Kidnapped? (August, 1972), Why Is the Senate Watergate Committee Functioning As Part of the Cover-Up? (July, 1973), Operation Chaos (November, 1976), The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination (November, 1983) and Who Killed Congressman Larry McDonald? (February 1984)

Mae Brussell died of cancer on 3rd October, 1988.

The original bio at Spartaus Educational

Jefferson Morley


v Primary Sources vJefferson Morley is a 25-year veteran of Washington journalism with proven record of breaking stories on the international media, U.S. foreign policy, and American history. His biography of Win Scott, the CIA station chief in Mexico City in the 1960s, will be published in 2007 by the University Press of Kansas.

Morley, a native of Minneapolis, attended Yale University. He worked as an editor at The New Republic, The Nation, and Spin Magazine before coming to the Washington Post in 1992. Morley has written extensively about the Central Intelligence Agency, the war on drugs, rock music, George H.W. Bush, Central American death squads and the Iran-contra affair.

His reporting has also appeared in The New York Review of Books, Readers Digest, The New York Times Book Review, Rolling Stone, The New Republic, The Nation, The Los Angeles Times, The American Prospect, and Salon. In 2000 he became the World News Editor of the online edition. In 2004 he became a columnist on the international media. World Opinion Roundup appeared every Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday.

Morley has taken a keen interest in the assassination of John F. Kennedy and is the author of several articles on the subject including Revelation 19.63 (April, 2001), What Jane Roman Said (January, 2002), Celebrated Authors Demand that the CIA Come Clean on the JFK Assassination (December, 2003) The Good Spy (December, 2003) an article about John M. Whitten, The JFK Murder: Can New Technology Finally Crack the Case? (March, 2005) and Conspiracy Theories (November, 2005). Jefferson Morley is currently writing a biography of Win Scott, a former CIA station chief in Mexico City.

Jefferson Morley is the plaintiff in a lawsuit against the CIA, demanding the release of records pertaining to CIA officer George Joannides. Joannides was called out of retirement in the 1970s to serve as liaison with the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Unknown to the HSCA, Joannides had in 1963 been the case officer for the Student Revolutionary Directorate, the Cuban exile group with whom Lee Harvey Oswald had multiple interactions in New Orleans.

In October, 2006, Judge Richard Leon upheld the CIA’s right to block disclosure of records about Joannides’s operational activities in August 1963.

In 2007 Jefferson Morley left the Washington Post and joined the Center for Independent Media. His article, The Man Who Did Not Talk, about the assassination of John F. Kennedy, was published in Playboy Magazine in November, 2007.

Jefferson Morley’s biography of Win Scott, the CIA station chief in Mexico City in the 1960s, Our Man in Mexico, was published in March 2008.


L. Fletcher Prouty


Snippit from lengthy bio at Spartacus  “In 1973 Prouty published his book The Secret Team. In this controversial work Prouty claimed that the CIA had worked on behalf of the interests of a “high cabal” of industrialists and bankers. Prouty thought that the Executive Actionprogramme had not only been used against foreign leaders. He also claimed that the CIA was involved in the killing of President John F. Kennedy. Prouty even named Edward Lansdale as the leader of the operation. He claimed he was in Dallas on the day of the assassination: “He was there like the orchestra leader, coordinating these things.”"

Douglas Horne

v Primary Sources v

Douglas Horne graduated from the Ohio State University in 1974 with a B.A. in History, and served as a junior officer in the U.S. Navy for 10 years, followed by 10 more years with the Navy as a Civil Servant in an anti-sub marine warfare program.

Horne worked on the staff of the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) in Washington, DC for the final 3 years of the Review Board’s 4-year lifespan, from August 1995 through September 1998. He was hired as a Senior Analyst on the Military Records Team, and was later promoted to the position of Chief Analyst for Military Records (i.e., the Head of the Military Records Team).

Horne was not only involved in the location and release of US military records on Cuba and Vietnam policy from 1961 through 1964, but he played an integral role in conducting both unsworn interviews and formal depositions of witnesses to, and participants in, JFK’s autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital, and was also involved in joint efforts between the ARRB and Kodak to both digitally preserve the photographic images of the autopsy, and to conduct an authenticity study of the Zapruder Film in the National Archives.

After leaving the Assassination Records Review Board Horne worked for the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum before joining the State Department.

A couple of articles by Douglas Horne, Evidence of a Government Cover-Up and Interviews with Former NPIC Employees , appeared in Murder in Dealey Plaza (edited by James H. Fetzer). An interesting interview with Horne by Dick Russell was included in On the Trail of the JFK Assassins (2008).

Douglas Horne’s book, Inside the Assassination Records Review Board was published in December, 2009.

original bio at Spartacus Educational

Harold Weisberg

v Primary Sources v

Harold Weisberg, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia, was born in 1914. After graduating from the University of Delaware, he wrote articles for the Wilmington Morning News and the Philadelphia Ledger.

Weisberg also worked as an investigator Robert M. La Follette (Jr) when he was a leading figure in the Progressive Party. During the Second World War he served in the Office of Strategic Services. Later he became a State Department intelligence analyst. He was also a successful poultry farmer in Montgomery County.

Weisberg became one of the leading experts on the killing of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King. He collected in his home more than 250,000 government papers on the Kennedy assassination. His first book on the Kennedy assassination,Whitewash: The Report on the Warren Report(1965), sold over 30,000 copies.

Other b books by Weisberg include Whitewash II: The FBI-Secret Service Cover Up (1966), Oswald in New Orleans: Case of Conspiracy with the C.I.A. (1967), Photographic Whitewash (1967), Frame-Up: The Martin Luther – James Earl Ray Case (1970), Post Mortem: JFK Assassination Cover Up (1975), Martin Luther King: The Assassination (1993), Selections from Whitewash (1993), Never Again! The Government Conspiracy in the JFK Assassination (1995) and Case Open: Unanswered JFK Assassination Questions (1996).

Although a conspiracy theorist, Weisberg was highly critical of Oliver Stone’s film, JFK. He commented “To do a mishmash like this is out of love for the victim and respect for history? I think people who sell sex have more principle.”

Harold Weisberg died at his home of kidney failure on Frederick on 21st February, 2002.

original bio at Spartacus Educational

John M. Newman

v Primary Sources v

John M. Newman spent 20 years with the U.S. Army Intelligence. This included serving in in Thailand, the Philippines, Japan, and China. He eventually became executive assistant to the director of the National Security Agency (NSA).

After leaving the NSA Newman joined the University of Maryland where he taught courses in Soviet, Chinese Communist, East Asian, and Vietnam War history, as well as Sino-Soviet and U.S.-Soviet relations.

John M. Newman is the author of JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and the Struggle for Power (1992) and Oswald and the CIA (1995). He also served as served as an adviser to Oliver Stone while he was making JFK and was one of the experts called upon to advise the JFK Assassination Records Review Board.

In 1995 Wayne Smith, chief of the Centre for International Policy in Washington, arranged a meeting on the assassination of John F. Kennedy, in Nassau, Bahamas. Others in attendance were John M. Newman, Gaeton Fonzi, Dick Russell, Noel Twyman, Anthony Summers, Peter Dale Scott, Jeremy Gunn, John Judge, Andy Kolis, Peter Kornbluh, Mary and Ray LaFontaine, Jim Lesar, Alan Rogers, Russ Swickard, Ed Sherry, and Gordon Winslow.

Some high-level Cuban officials attended the conference. This included Fabian Escalante, Carlos Lechuga, a former Cuban diplomat, and Arturo Rodriguez, a State Security official. Escalante revealed details of the confession made by Tony Cuesta. He also informed the group they had a spy in the anti-Castro community in Miami and knew about the plot to kill Kennedy.

A new edition of Oswald and the CIA was published in 2008. Newman argues that James Angleton was probably the key figure in the assassination of John F. Kennedy: “In my view, whoever Oswald’s direct handler or handlers were, we must now seriously consider the possibility that Angleton was probably their general manager. No one else in the Agency had the access, the authority, and the diabolically ingenious mind to manage this sophisticated plot. No one else had the means necessary to plant the WWIII virus in Oswald’s files and keep it dormant for six weeks until the president’s assassination. Whoever those who were ultimately responsible for the decision to kill Kennedy were, their reach extended into the national intelligence apparatus to such a degree that they could call upon a person who knew its inner secrets and workings so well that he could design a failsafe mechanism into the fabric of the plot. The only person who could ensure that a national security cover-up of an apparent counterintelligence nightmare was the head of counterintelligence.”

original bio at Spartacus Educational

William Penn Jones Jr.

v Primary Sources v

William Penn Jones, the son of sharecroppers, was born in Annona, Texas, on 15th October, 1914. He was a hobo during the Great Depression and then worked his way through the University of Texas at Austin by working in various unskilled occupations.

He joined the United States Army and served in all the major campaigns in Europe during the Second World War. By the time he left the army he had reached the rank of captain.

In 1946 Jones purchased the local newspaper, Midlothian Mirror (circulation – 810) for $4,000. Jones campaigned for increased spending on black schools. His liberal opinions caused controversy and his attacks on the John Birch Society resulted in his office being firebombed. He was later the recipient of the Elijah Parish Lovejoy Award for courageous journalism.

In 1963 Jones became involved in investigating the assassination of John F. Kennedy. A fellow researcher, Gary Mack, later explained: “Penn was one of the first generation of researchers who felt the government was behind the assassination – probably a conspiracy involving military intelligence… He always thought LBJ was behind it somehow.” He was also the author of several books on the assassination: Forgive My Grief I (1966), Forgive My Grief II (1967), Forgive My Grief III (1974), and Forgive My Grief VI (1976).

Jones sold the Midlothian Mirror in 1974. However, he continued to publish the newsletter, The Continuing Inquiry. Every year, on the anniversary of the assassination, Jones held a memorial service at Dealey Plaza.

According to Gary Mack:”Penn was one of the first generation of researchers who felt the government was behind the assassination – probably a conspiracy involving military intelligence. He always thought

LBJ was behind it somehow.”

In 1995 the Coalition on Political Assassinations presented Jones, Harold Weisberg, Josiah Thompson and Mary Ferrell with the Sylvia Meagher Lifetime Achievement Award in honour of their ground breaking and persistent work in pursuit of the truth.

William Penn Jones died in a nursing home in Alvarado, Texas, on 25th January, 1998.

Original bio at Spartacus Educational

Robert J. Groden

v Primary Sources v

Robert J. Groden first became interested in the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1964. A harsh critic of the Warren Commission, he was the Staff Photographic Consultant to the House Select Committee on Assassinations and a consultant on Oliver Stone’s film JFK.

Groden is the author of several books on the assassination of High Treason: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy: What Really Happened (1989), High Treason: The Great Cover-Up: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (1992), The Killing of a President: The Complete Photographic Record of the JFK Assassination, the Conspiracy, and the Cover-up (1993) and The Search for Lee Harvey Oswald: A Comprehensive Photographic Record (1995).

Original bio


David Mantik

v Primary Sources v

David W. Mantik received his doctorate in physics from the University of Wisconsin and was a member on the physics faculty (as assistant professor) at the university before leaving for medical school. He completed his internship and residency in radiation oncology at LAC/USC Medical Center in Los Angeles.

He has also completed fellowships in physics at the University of Illinois and in biophysics at Stanford University, and a junior faculty clinical fellowship with the American Cancer Society.

Mantik has carried out extensive research into the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This includes detailed studies of Kennedy autopsy X-rays and the Zapruder Film. In 1993 Mantik disclosed that after examining the autopsy X-rays at the National Archives they had been altered and “that there were 2 shots which struck the head, and that the magic bullet is anatomically impossible”.

Mantik, along with Robert Livingston, Charles Crenshaw, Ronald F. White and Jack White, contributed to Assassination Science (edited by James H. Fetzer). Mantik also contributed Paradoxes of the The Medical Evidence Decoded, The Zapruder Film Controversy and The Silence of the Historians to Murder in Dealey Plaza (2000) and The Dealey Plaza Home Movies to The Great Zapruder Film Hoax (2003).

Original Bio


Joan Mellen

v Primary Sources v

Joan Mellen is the author of seventeen books, ranging from film criticism to fiction, sports, true crime, Latin American studies and biography. Her early work was about the cinema. This included The Battle of Algiers (1972), Women and Their Sexuality in the New Film (1974), Big Bad Wolves: Masculinity in the American Cinema (1975), The Waves at Genji’s Door: Japan through Its Cinema (1976).

In 1981 Joan Mellen published her first novel, Natural Tendencies. She also also written the biography Kay Boyle: Author of Herself (1994) and a book about the relationship between the two writers, Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett was entitled Hellman and Hammett (1996).

Joan Mellen, who is a professor of English and creative writing at Temple University in Philadelphia, has written for a variety of publications such as the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, Philadelphia Inquirer and the Baltimore Sun. She has also written two books about Japanese film for the British Film Institute, Seven Samurai (2002) and In the Realm of the Senses (2004).

A Farewell to Justice a biography of Jim Garrison was published in 2005. Modern Times appeared in 2007. Her book about George de Mohrenschildt, entitled, Our Man in Haiti, was published in 2012.

Original Bio


Anthony Summers

v Primary Sources v

Anthony Summers was born in 1942. After completing his education at Oxford University he worked as a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

Summers has written several books about several historical figures including Nicholas II, John F. Kennedy, J. Edgar Hoover and Richard Nixon: The File on the Tsar (1976) and The Kennedy Conspiracy (1980).

Summers has written extensively about the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He rejected the findings of the Warren Commission and instead claims that Kennedy was killed by a right-wing conspiracy that could have included Johnny Roselli, Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, David Ferrie, Gerry Patrick Hemming, Guy Bannister, Sam Giancana and E.Howard Hunt.

Other books by Summers includes: Goddess: The Secret Lives of Marilyn Monroe (1985), Honeytrap (1988), The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover (1993) and Not in Your Lifetime (1998). He has also co-written with Robbyn Swan three books, The Arrogance of Power:The Secret World of Richard Nixon (2000), Sinatra: The Life (2005) and The Eleventh Day (2011).

Original Bio


Josiah Thompson

v Primary Sources v

Josiah Thompson graduated from Yale University in 1957. He served in Underwater Demolition Team 21 before returning to Yale for graduate work. Thompson got his MA in 1962 and Ph.D. in 1964 and was later hired by the Philosophy Department.

After studying in Denmark Thompson returned to the United States in 1965 to teach at Haverford College, outside Philadelphia. In 1967 he published The Lonely Labyrinth, a book on the Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard.

Thompson took a keen interest in the assassination of John F. Kennedy and in 1967 Thompson published Six Seconds in Dallas – A Micro-Study of the Kennedy Assassination. In the book Thompson argues that four shots were fired by three gunman. Two shots were fired from the Texas Book Depository, a third, from the Dallas County Records Building, and a fourth from the grassy knoll. One hit Kennedy in the back, another hit John Connally, and the third and fourth hit the president in the head.

Thompson continued to work at Haverford College and in 1973 published his second book on philosophy, Kierkegaard. He abandoned academic life in 1976 and moved to California where he became a private investigator. In 1988 he published Gumshoe: Reflections in a Private Eye, an account of his life as a private-eye.

Over the last 30 years Thompson has investigated over a hundred murder cases. He participated in the defense of Bill and Emily Harris in the Patty Hearst kidnapping, and of Huey Newton on murder and assault charges. His most recent high-profile cases include being investigator for Timothy McVeigh in the Oklahoma bombing trial and investigating the bombing of environmental activists Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney.

In recent years Thompson has been highly critical of those researchers such as James H. Fetzer, David Mantik, Jack White and David Lifton who have argued that the Zapruder Film was tampered with soon after the assassination.

Original Bio

Walt Brown

v Primary Sources v

Walt Brown has a Ph.D. in history from the University of Notre Dame, and teaches history at Ramapo College in New Jersey.

Brown, a former special agent of the Justice Department, is a longtime researcher of the Warren Commission and the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He is also the editor of JFK/Deep Politics and the author of several books on the subject including: The People V. Lee Harvey Oswald (1992), Treachery in Dallas (1995), Referenced Index Guide to the Warren Commission (1995), JFK Assassination Quizbook (1995) and The Warren Omission(1996).

Brown’s most ambitious project was The Global Index to the JFK Assassination, a CD-ROM of 2400 pages, which indexed not just the WC, but also the HSCA, and 100+ of the best known JFK books. There are 17,185 names and over 4 million references, and it is cross-referenced by 175 categories; so if you cannot remember the name of a particular Secret Service agent (or 174 other possible categories), you look through the alphabetic listing of the hundreds of SS agents listed, find the name, and then go to that listing in the Index.   Original Bio



Michael Parenti received his Ph.D. in political science from Yale University. He has taught at a number of colleges and universities, in the United States and abroad. Some of his writings have been translated into Arabic, Azeri, Bangla, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish.

“… this tough, hilarious, right-on mix of scholar and street.”

KPFA-Pacifica, 1994 

Michael Parenti has won awards from Project Censored, the Caucus for a New Political Science, the city of Santa Cruz, New Jersey Peace Action, the Social Science Research Council, the Society for Religion in Higher Education, and other organizations. In 2007 he was awarded a Certificate of Special Congressional Recognition from U.S. Representative Barbara Lee.

During his earlier teaching career he received grants or fellowships from the Louis Rabinowitz Foundation, the Ford Foundation, Brown University, Yale University, State University of New York, and the University of Illinois. For several years he was a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D.C.

He now serves on the advisory boards of Independent Progressive Politics Network, Education Without Borders, and the Jasenovic Foundation; as well as the advisory editorial boards of New Political Science and Nature, Society and Thought. He also served for some 12 years as a judge for Project Censored.

Original Bio

Carl Oglesby

Lengthy bio at Spartacus

Oglesby went on to teach politics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dartmouth College. He also released two albums, Carl Oglesby (1969) and Going to Damascus (1971), that were praised for their “psychedelic folk rock sound.” In 1972 Oglesby was one of the founders of the Assassination Information Bureau. His writings include the afterword On the Trial of the Assassins, in the book written by Jim Garrison.

Oglesby is also the co-author of Containment and Change (1967) and the editor of The New Left Reader (1969). Oglesby has written several books on the assassination of John F. Kennedy and related topics such as Watergate. This included the publication of The Politics Of Conspiracy (1975), The Yankee and Cowboy War: Conspiracies from Dallas to Watergate and Beyond (1976).Who Killed JFK? (1991) and The JFK Assassination: The Facts and the Theories (1992). This was followed by Ravens in the Storm: A Personal History of the 1960s Antiwar Movement (2008).

Gaeton Fonzi

David Lifton